In order to meet the expected power demand in a secure way, even in years of less water flow, Angola will have in 2025 around 9,9 GW of installed power, with a strong focus on hydropower and natural gas.
Hydropower will reach 6,5 GW of installed power (66% of the total), favoring the balance between cost competitiveness and regional development in the post-2017 period, with the phasing of Caculo Cabaça and a higher focus on new rivers and basins - such as the river Queve with the Balalunga and Cafula projects, the river Catumbela with the Cacombo, Lomaum 2 and Calengue projects, the rivers Cune, Cunhinga and Cutato with the hydrothermal project, the river Cunene with Jamba-Ya-Mina, Jamba-Ya-Oma and the international Baynes project, and other smaller hydro projects throughout the country.

Natural gas will reach 1,9 GW (19% of the total) with the doubling of Soyo and the conversion to natural gas of several turbines and/or small combined cycles in Cabinda, Luanda, Benguela and Namibe. The power sector will therefore contribute to the gasification of the main industrial clusters of the country, increasing their efficiency, reducing costs and decreasing diesel related subsidies.
These values are complemented with an additional 800 MW of installed capacity in renewable energies, around 8% of the total installed power, and 700 MW of installed capacity of other thermal-based generation, representing around 7% of the total.


In order for these evolutions to take place until 2025, all of the 5 Systems will have to develop:

Northern System

  • In Soyo, the whole of the gas potential and of the 400 kV corridor will be put to profit with the installation of two 360 MW additional units to the 720 MW currently under construction, giving a total of 1.440 MW. The gas currently available allows the power plants to operate only in peak and mid-peak times
  • or alternatively to operate at half-load in order to guarantee available reserve. It will also be possible for these units to operate in “dual-fuel” mode – with either LNG, Butane or Diesel – in dry years so as to maximize production.
  • In Luanda new generation capacity is not planned, with the exception of the replacement of groups 4 and 5 in Cazenga with a medium-sized natural gas combined cycle that will in the future ensure power regulation in Luanda. Until 2025, groups 1, 2 and 3 in Cazenga will be decommissioned and the barges of Boavista Power Plant will be relocated to Benguela (80 MW) and Namibe (40 MW). The remaining thermal power plants in Luanda will operate as backup.
  • The Caculo Cabaça hydropower plant will be built in phases, with 1.000 MW installed until 2025 with an operating regime close to base load.
  • The Zenzo 1 and Túmulo do Caçador hydropower plants, which are highly competitive projects, should be studied in detail and initiated within the 2025 timeframe only if there are evolutions in demand, such as a new intensive industry large scale project or the construction of a high capacity export axis.

Central System

  • In the river Queve two high priority hydropower projects will be developed: next to Porto Amboim, the Balalunga project (also known as Quilengue) with 220 MW and upstream the Cafula project with 400 MW, with regulation capacity and a high potential for irrigation. The solution considered for Cafula is
  • compatible with the possible construction of the Utiundumbo dam in the post-2025 period, in reverse mode with Cafula.
  • In the river Catumbela, in the upstream part, the Cacombo project will be built in order to regulate the river’s flow, and in the downstream part the projects of Lomaum 2 with 160 MW and Calengue with around 200 MW will be built.
  • In the rivers Cutato, Cune and Cunhinga – in the Bié province – several medium-sized and large hydropower plants integrated in the hydrothermal project will be built, with a planned total power installed capacity between 200 MW and 450 MW until 2025, depending on the evolution of demand. Thermal generation in the Central system will come mainly from the hydrothermal project which includes a 300 MW biomass-based generation. In addition, the Boavista barges, operating with LNG and with a total of 80 MW, will be moved to Lobito. The power plants of Quileva and Biópio would work mainly as backup.

Southern System

  • Namibe will be reinforced with 80 MW in turbines, of which 40 MW correspond to the barge currently operating in the Boavista power plant (Luanda).
  • The Jamba Ya Mina and Jamba Ya Oma hydropower projects, despite their main objective being the regulation of the Cunene river, will play a major role in supporting the Center-South corridor and the cities of Lubango and Menongue – whose supply in 2025 will be mainly based on the transmission of energy from other systems and from Baynes and Namibia further south.
  • In the Southern border, the Baynes hydropower project will move forward until 2025 with a total power between 400 and 600 MW, of which we can assume 200 to 300 MW will be available for Angola.

Eastern System

  • In the Lunda Norte and Lunda South provinces the construction of the Hydroelectric System of Luapasso is planned, composed of 3 projects with a total of 80 MW of installed power. In addition, the construction of a medium-sized hydropower plant is planned in the Cuango river that, while the north east high voltage transport axis is not completed, can electrify “off-grid” thousands of people living in that region.
  • In Moxico, the city of Luena will need 80 MW of thermal power until 2025 in order to guarantee n-1 security levels should a problem with the planned transmission line occur. Luau, Cazombo, Luacano and Muconda municipality townships will be powered by one or more hydropower plants to be installed in the Cassai river. 


  • The Fútila power plant will grow up until 235 MW based on 2 medium-sized combined cycles, with 100 MW each, complemented with a simple-cycle turbine of 40 MW operating as backup - the 2 existing turbines will be converted into one of the future combined cycles by installing a steam turbine.
  • The Fútila power plant will be converted to operate with natural gas produced on-shore in Cabinda and will be connected at 220 kV with the city of Cabinda and with the DRC.



The National Strategy for New Renewable Energies approved a goal of 800 MW, with a share of 500 MW in biomass and 100 MW for each of the other sources: wind, sun and small hydropower plants. The map in figure 57 shows a possible distribution of renewable projects throughout the country in 2025, whose materialization will depend on private initiative and more detailed studies.

Therefore, along with the large and medium-sized hydropower projects, Angola will have 74% of its installed power based on renewable energies, which would qualify Angola into the top 10 countries in the World - amongst SADC, OPEP and OCDE countries. The high level of renewables will also allow Angola to benefit from one of the world’s lowest power sector emission factors – 98 g CO2/kWh.




The operation of the installed generation plants will greatly depend on the hydrologic conditions (Figure 58). The Angolan power system benefits from a “natural protection” given that the two summer quarters (January to June), with greatest demand, are also those with highest hydroelectric production. The last quarter of the year is the one with the least hydroelectric production being necessary a higher usage of natural gas power plants.
On an average hydrologic year, hydropower and gas will represent a higher share when compared to their installed power given the extremely low utilization of the remaining thermal power plants – which only supply 0,4% of the produced energy – mainly during peak hours.




In this scenario, the high hydropower production and the available gas in Soyo – which must be consumed – will result in an overproduction with respect to the internal demand, mainly during the 2nd quarter. It is therefore important to take advantage of the potential regional export opportunities in order to maintain adequate operation levels of the system’s power plants. It will be difficult, however, during more favorable hydrologic years to avoid discharging.
In Angola, the hydropower generation profile will vary not only along the year but also within the typical day. The existing regularization cqpacity of hydro reservoirs will allow generation to be minimized during off-peak periods and increased during peak hours. Gas flexibility will also play a major role in taking advantage of the export potential during peak-hours.
In 2025, the 9,9 GW installed power will correspond to a guaranteed power of 7,5 GW, offering a 1,05 cover ratio relative to peak demand (bar chart above).
The need for such reserve level requirement is particularly visible in the following simulation of the system operation during a “dry year” (bar chart below).

The average daily use profile of the power plants by energy source chart below exemplifies the operation of the system along one average day should the same water flow levels as those occurred in 1971/1972 – the worst hydrologic year ever recorded - be observed in 2025. In this situation the hydroelectric generation only represents 47% of the total, with natural gas mounting up to 25% and the remaining thermal plants to 6%.

During a dry year there will be a higher concentration of hydropower generation during the hours of greater demand, which will as a consequence allow the thermal generation to operate steadily and at the highest available load (the rotating reserve being assumed by hydropower). The Soyo power plant will have to operate half the time using other type of fuel.
In such years there will be very limited opportunities to export. The possibility of importing energy from coal-fired power plants of South Africa during off-peak hours - with lower costs and allowing the hydro reservoirs to hold more water for peak periods - maybe a relevant contribution to the power system security.